- (2013) “Sekularni princip je u interesu Crkve” (The Secular Principle is in the Best Interest of the Church) in: Politika 35757 (May 28), 14.
- (2012) “Spektakl efemernog” (The Spectacle of the Ephemeral) in: Pravoslavlje 1088 (Belgrade: Patriarchate of the Serbian Orthodox Church), 24-26.
- (2012) “Beogradska harfa”(The Belgrade Harp)in: Pravoslavlje 1081, 28-29.
- (2012) “Kriza demokratije?” (The Crisis of Democracy?) in: Pravoslavlje 1080, 28-31.
- (2012) “Quo Vadis Europa?” in: Pravoslavlje 1078, 32, 33.
- (2012) “Savest našeg vremena – Noam Čomski” (The Consciousness of Our Time – Noam Chomsky) in: Pravoslavlje 1075-76, 26-27.
- (2012) “We Don’t Need No Education” available at: http://blog.b92.net/text/20493/We-Don’t-Need-No-Education
- (2012) “Predizborni plakati – uništavanje estetike gradova” (Pre-Elections Posters – Wiping Out Cities’ Aesthetics) available at: http://blog.b92.net/text/19946/Predizborni-plakati—unistavanje-estetike-gradova
- (2011) “Deconstructing a Deconstruction” A response to D. Solway’s article on Noam Chomsky
- (2011) “Lice Mesije (I)” (The Face of the Messiah – I) in: Pravoslavlje 1062, 32-35.
- (2011) “Lice Mesije (II)” (The Face of the Messiah – II) in: Pravoslavlje 1064, 20-23.
- (2011) “Od tolerancije i poštovanja do ljubavi” (From Tolerance and Respect to Love) in: Pravoslavlje 1059. 13.
- (2011) “The Mosaic Workshop of the Centro Aletti” (The Mosaic-Workshop of the Centro Aletti) in: Pravoslavlje 1055, 24-25.
- (2011) “Ljudsko telo: između individualnosti i ličnosti” (Human Body: Between Individuality and Personhood) in: Pravoslavlje 1053, 26-28.
- (2011) “Est/Etika”(Aest/Ethics) in: Pravoslavlje 1051-52, 32-33.
- (2010) “Koncept zatvorenih muzeja” (The Concept of Closed Museums) available at: http://blog.b92.net/text/16637/Koncept-zatvorenih-muzeja
- (2010) “The End of Multiculturalism: Angela Merkel as Zeitgeist” available at: http://blog.b92.net/text/16405/The-End-of-Multiculturalism%3A-Angela-Merkel-kao-Zeitgeist
- (2010) “Gay parada, nasilje i odbrana tradicionalnih vrednosti” (Gay Parade, Violence and the Defense of the ‘Traditional Values’) available at: http://blog.b92.net/text/16258/Gay-parada-nasilje-i-odbrana-tradicionalnih-vrednosti
- (2007) “Aktuelizacija ličnosti kroz umetnost” (Actualization of the Personhood through Art) in: Savindan 17 (Prijepolje), 2-3.
- (2005) “O crkvenoj umetnosti” (On Church Art) in: Faith, Knowledge, Peace (Belgrade: Belgrade Open School), 259-262.
- (2005) “Rezime virtuelne debate o veri u savremenoj umetnosti i kulturi” (Debating Faith in Contemporary Arts and Culture) in: Faith, Knowledge, Peace (Belgrade: Belgrade Open School), 412-422.
In this essay I analyze one of the recent critiques of Noam Chomsky’s political thought, by David Solway. I focus particularly on this critique since it repeats the most common arguments and views that can be heard from the anti-Chomskian front of intellectuals. Discussing particular topics and arguments I also address broader questions such as what does it mean to be an intellectual today and what kind of responsibility do we need today in the public as well as academic discourse?
An interesting essay “Deconstructing Chomsky” by David Solway appeared in a recent issue of Arts & Opinion (Vol. 10, No. 4, 2011). As I am generally in favor of all fruitful “deconstructions,” I started reading the essay with much enthusiasm, hoping that it might reveal some new facts, perspectives or arguments related to Noam Chomsky and his influential thought. I also strongly believe that nothing should be left without critical examination, as I consider critical thinking the most vital aspect of intellectual life, science and theory in general. Therefore, critical reading of Chomsky is, as any other critical reading, desirable and necessary, especially if we bear in mind the influence and reputation which Chomsky as an author has both inside and outside the academic community.
However, critical reading or “deconstruction” should be based on some arguments and evidence. Mr. Solway starts very promisingly in this respect saying, “I will, however, provide evidence for my dismissal of Chomsky.” Let us assume that Mr. Solway had an honest intention and that he is a person who wants to be taken seriously in his criticism. These are the premises of my critical reading of Mr. Solway’s text. I will not try to defend at any point Prof. Chomsky, as he is more than capable of doing it alone. Instead, I will only focus on the style of the argument expressed in “Deconstructing Chomsky.”
As I am not an expert in the field of linguistics, I will limit my comments on Mr. Solway’s critical reading of Chomsky’s political thought.
The first disappointment we come across in this essay is ad hominem arguments that the author employs throughout the text. Ad hominem arguments are simply unacceptable in any serious analysis of someone’s thought or particular positions. Therefore, they should also be invalid in the critical reading of Chomsky. For instance, one ad hominem argument (if we can consider it a serious argument at all) is Mr. Solway’s remark: “he (Chomsky) is an intellectual charlatan.” Let us suppose that Chomsky is an intellectual charlatan; what proves this statement? Why is he a charlatan? In practicing some sort of magic, words do have power on their own; it is enough to say something and it becomes true. In serious scholarship and critical thinking, this is not enough. The fact that someone calls Chomsky (or anybody else) a “charlatan,” does not make him a charlatan. Some evidence should/must be provided.
Here we come to the second difficulty with Mr. Solway’s essay. There is not any evidence for his statements. All that we have is Mr. Solway’s statements about Chomsky and quotes about what other people stated. But even if 99% of the population stated that water is composed of helium and radium, it would not make that statement true. In other words, it is necessary to hear some supporting arguments or analyses to take these statements seriously. Making the following statement (by quoting Peter Schweizer) does not dismiss Chomsky’s arguments and contributions as an intellectual either: “America is, for Chomsky, ‘the land of Pentagon contracts, lucrative real estate holdings, stock market wealth, and a tax-sheltered trust for his children.’ Yet, despite his fierce denunciations, he squats there like an orb spider, his web sagging with the weight of juicy flies. He makes disingenuous millionaire Michael Moore look like a small-time piker.” Even if Chomsky were a government official, his criticism of the government might be true. Not to mention that this ad hominem argument simply overlooks Chomsky’s awareness of the many privileges he enjoys, together with the rest of the academic community in the United States, which he constantly brings to attention in many interviews and talks (a glance at Youtube videos can easily demonstrate this).
The same is valid for another statement: “As for his political ravings, the sheer nonsense of most of his claims is outstripped only by the abyssal gullibility of his auditors and readers, who do not realize that Chomsky is a contaminated witness.” This is “proved” by another quote: “‘It would be easy to demonstrate,’ writes David Horowitz in an article titled ‘The Sick Mind of Noam Chomsky,’ (sic!) ‘how on every page of every book and in every statement that Chomsky has written, the facts are twisted, the political context is distorted (and often inverted) and the historical record is systematically traduced,’ expressing ‘a pathological hatred of his own country.’” The “argument” continues as following: “A recent book has accomplished precisely such a demonstration. Chomsky’s doctoring of sources, dubious or obscure references, misquotations, convenient abridgments, significant omissions and gross misinterpretations have been abundantly documented in The Anti-Chomsky Reader, a volume which should be consulted by those who are still impressed by Chomsky’s glowing nimbus and public prominence as a ‘libertarian socialist.’” And that is all. In other words, one statement is supported by a quotation where we find another statement and this one is supported by another quotation which is also a statement. No need for any further explication – it is claimed that the evidence is somewhere else.
Just to show that this kind of reasoning goes throughout the text I will cite the following passage which seems to be another satisfactory “evidence” for the author: “In his (Richard Posner’s) Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline, Posner writes that Chomsky’s tone and one-sidedness is ‘all too typical’ of his oeuvre. ‘Chomsky’s use of sources is uncritical, and his methodology unsatisfactory — it consists simply of changing the subject.’”
It is clear that the statements given above do not leave much room for any counter-argument or verification, because they are empty of any content, except pure accusations.
However, in the next paragraph we find something resembling an argument, which the author borrows from Thomas Sowell. The accusation is that “Chomsky is one of those public intellectuals who has ranged ‘beyond the confines of his specialty’ and made ‘inflammatory comments on things for which he had no qualifications.’” The only evidence provided is that, “the shabby scholarship alone, evident both in the pulpiteering style and the abject referencing, as well as the apodictic claptrap he purveys, should have set off alarm bells for responsible readers and prompted them to do a bit of supplementary research.”
And yet, there is an important claim in this statement, which deserves to be addressed. It is the statement that public intellectuals should not comment on things for which they have no qualification. It seems self-evident that someone should know something about things he or she discusses. However, it is not clear what it means to have “qualifications” to discuss or do something, especially something like being a public intellectual. It seems to me that one should have formal education to give comments on oral hygiene or the newest results in the physics of sub-atomic particles. But if we stick to the argument that formal education is the only way to credibly comment on things that touch particular fields, we would need to dismiss e.g. Friedrich Nietzsche as a philosopher, simply because he had no diploma in philosophy. Following the same logic, we would have to a priori dismiss Mr. Solway’s essay, because he does not have a PhD in Noam Chomsky’s political theory!
There is, however, a deeper aspect of this argument – what does it mean to have “qualifications” to be an intellectual? What kind of training should one take, what kind of school should one attend to become an intellectual or critical thinker? Putting questions this way makes us see that the above argument about Chomsky simply misses the point. In other words, there is no training which makes someone a critical thinker, as there is no training which makes you a good philosopher or a “genius” in a certain discipline. It is rather a process of permanent education, analysis and synthesis which allows you to think outside the box and go beyond the limits of formal education, which can be, and in fact always is, some sort of (positive or negative) “indoctrination.” This is, however, not an argument in favor of those who would like to abandon all schools as unnecessary. It is only a warning that formal education functions within a wider social context, so developing critical thinking or becoming an intellectual is not something that can be memorized in a college course.
Bearing this all in mind, the essay trying to “deconstruct” Chomsky exposes itself as just another construction. The final sentences of the essay seem to support such a conclusion: “Ultimately, there can be no rebutting that Chomsky, for all his weird, unanchored giftedness, is not only an intellectual tyrant; he is an intellectual charlatan, however compelling. He is, to go back to Hitchens, the Mother Teresa of the secular domain. And those who hang upon his words have sacrificed both their integrity and their understanding.”
Chomsky is certainly not infallible, but it is curious how each criticism of Chomsky and his political views (at least all those I am aware of) follow two dominant patterns: 1) accusations and ad hominem arguments (he is: “sick,” “traitor,” “self-hating Jew,” “charlatan,” “Russian spy,” etc.); and 2) elimination of the context in which particular claims and arguments by Chomsky appear, which becomes then the basis for accusations. Maybe Chomsky is wrong in many of his claims, but to correct him we need is a serious criticism, which would take into account arguments and the reality of the world we live in.
It would be, therefore, more appropriate if we could hear some analyses that would prove or disapprove particular facts and perspectives, unless the essay by Mr. Solway is considered a literary/poetic exercise, or just a pamphlet, which requires no evidence whatsoever.
- (2013) “How to Be a Human Being: From Orthodox Iconography, via Pornography, to Facebook”
- (2013) “Christian and National Identities in Serbia in the Context of European Integrations” (with Jelena Jablanov Maksimović), in: National and European Identity in the Process of European Integration (Edited by Pero Petrović and Milovan Radaković), Belgrade: Institute of International Politics and Economics, 2013, 638-643.
- (2013) “Religion, Politics, and Beyond: The Pussy Riot Case” in: Journal of Religion and Society, Vol. 15/2013, 1-14.
- (2012) “Beauty Will Destroy the World” in: Beauty and the Beautiful in Eastern Christian Culture. Sophia Studies in Orthodox Theology, Vol. 6. (Edited by Natalia Ermolaev), New York: Theotokos Press, 279-291.
- (2012) „Poraz obrazovanja u digitalnom dobu?” (The Defeat of Education in the Age of Digital Technologies?) in: Kultura 135/2012, Beograd: Centar za proučavanje kulturnog razvitka, 20-27.
- (2012) „(Ne)postojanost sećanja” (The (In)Stability of Memory) u: Opasna sećanja i pomirenje: kontekstualna romišljanja u postkonfliktnom društvu (priredio Srđan Sremac et al.), Rijeka: Ex Libris, 297-308.
- (2012) “Iconoclasm,”
- (2011) “Mala Herba Cito Crescit” in: Religioznost u Srbiji, Beograd: Centar za evropske studije – Konrad Adenauer – Hrišćanski kulturni centar, 35-42.
- (2011) “The Concept of Authorship in Visual Arts: Main Contemporary Approaches,” in: Zbornik Matice Srpske za likovne umetnosti, 39, Novi Sad: Matica srpska, 205-214.
- (2011) “Techne – Ars – Creatio“ in: Teološki pogledi 2/2011, 67-78.
- (2010) “Creation vs. Techne: The Inner Conflict of Art” in: Analecta Husserliana CVI, London – New York: Springer, 199-212.
- (2010) “Joseph Beuys: Every Man is an Artist”, “Joseph Beuys: Imitatio Christi,”
- (2010) “Vox Populi, Vox Dei” in: Hrišćanstvo i demokratija, Beograd: Konrad Adenauer – Hrišćanski kulturni centar, 133-148.
- (2010) “Kultura kao fantazam” (Culture as Phantasm) in: Kultura 126/2010, Vol. I, Beograd: Centar za proučavanje kulturnog razvitka, 64-73.
- (2010) “Identity In-Between” in: To Be From/Out – Towards the Redefinition of the Cultural Identity of Serbia, Beograd: Kulturklammer, 306-309.
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- (2009) “Fides et Regnum” in: Crkva u pluralističkom društvu, Beograd: Konrad Adenauer – Hrišćanski kulturni centar, 29-35.
- (2009) “The Testimony of Icons” in: Studia Theologica VII, 1/2009 (Cluj-Napoca), 49-63.
- (2008) “De Rebus Artium Quasi Phenomena Apophatica” in: Teološki pogledi 1/2008, 11-24.
- (2007) “Komparativna analiza nereske fraske Oplakivanja Hrista i istoimene Đotove kompozicije iz kapele Skrovenji” (A Comparative Analysis of the Lamentation fresco from the Monastery of Nerezi and Giotto’s Composition from the Arena Chapel) in: Leskovački zbornik XLVII, (Leskovac) 73-89.
- (2006) “Who is an Author (Artist)?” in: Studia Theologica IV, 2/2006 (Cluj-Napoca), 119-123.
- (2002) “Preobraženjska crkva u Novom Sarajevu arhitekte Aleksandra Deroka” (The Transfiguration Church by Aleksandar Deroko in Novo Sarajevo) in: Novopazarski zbornik, 26/2002 (Novi Pazar), 247-252.
It is not an easy task to summarize the manifold opus, exciting professional career and life of Davor Džalto. Davor is primarily a thinker who critically, systematically and creatively investigates various artistic, philosophical and theological concepts to implement them in his analysis of our contemporary society and culture. He belongs to a younger generation of intellectuals who shaped his artistic and theoretical sensibility in various countries and cultural contexts. He was born in Travnik, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992 he came to Niš where he continued his school years. Formal education as a graphic designer he obtained in the High School of Art. It was also there where he first learned about theology of icons and techniques of icon-painting, which made a deep and essential impact on his future work. During this time he was visiting many art workshops, and started experimenting in new media. He also became interested in philosophy, haiku poetry, Zen Buddhism and calligraphy. He was only eighteen years old when he published his first booklet “On Writing Systems,” which immediately became a textbook used in the School for courses in typography and calligraphy.
He graduated with distinction, demonstrating excellent results in both theoretical and practical subjects. Inspired by the Conceptual art and the expanded field of the artistic practice in the late twentieth century, he decided to continue his education at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade, in the history of art department.
During his university years he traveled quite intensely, visiting sites across Europe. He intensified his work in performance, installations and video art, continuing working in traditional media as well, which resulted in his first one-man show in Belgrade, in 2000.
This was the time when he also started participating in international exhibitions. Being still a student, he attracted significant media attention with one of his performances. In 2002 he performed “The Funeral of an Author” as a comment upon the postmodernist “death of the author” discourse. He was literally buried inside a grave he dug, in a public park in Belgrade.
In 2003 he graduated from the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, as the best Faculty student. For this achievement as well as for the overall study score, he received honors both from the Faculty of Philosophy and from the University of Belgrade. The following year marks the beginning of his “German period.” He moved to Freiburg, a famous German university town, where he was accepted by Prof. Angeli Janhsen, a specialist in the twentieth century art, for a PhD research in the history of modern and contemporary art. Although focused mostly on his research, he did not forget his artistic vocation. He took the opportunity to interact with the new surroundings – experimenting with the inspiring environment of the Black Forest (Schwarzwald), he made his project “Icons in the Black Forest.” Another interesting work from this period, in an equally beautiful surrounding, was his action “Meditationen mit Ikonen und serbischem Kaffee im japanischen Garten” where he combined the pleasure of socializing and coffee drinking in a beautiful surrounding of the Japanese Garden in Freiburg, with creating art and reading haiku poetry. During this time he was occasionally presenting his works in Serbia too. His video “The Red Army” was screened at the 45th international October Salon in Belgrade. In 2005 he had another one-man show, presenting his video works at the Gallery of Students’ Cultural Center in Belgrade.
He finished writing his PhD thesis in Freibrug, in a record time, according to the available University statistics. He defended his dissertation in 2006, becoming the youngest doctor of philosophy in humanities in Germany, as reported by the newspapers and electronic media. He continued his brilliant academic career as the youngest university professor in the field of humanities in the ex-Yugoslav region – he was only 27 when he started teaching art history. Teaching at the same time at various institutions of higher education, he found time to prepare another exhibition, this time in Austria. Answering to the call from the Sodalitas center near Klagenfurt, he presented his first one-man exhibition of icons in 2008.
In the same year, 2008, he married Bojana Bursać. Family life did not interrupt his intense travelling and his research. Parallel to his duties as a university teacher he began writing his postdoctoral project at the Faculty of Theology, University of Münster.
In 2010 he opened another one-man show in Belgrade, titled “10/30” – signifying ten years since his first one-man exhibition in 2000, and thirty years of his life. This was a retrospective exhibition of his icons and “icon-like paintings” (as he prefers to call them).
As a visiting and honorary professor of art history, art theory and religion, he has thought at various institutions of higher education in Europe and the United States, including Indiana University and Fordham University of New York.
He is currently the president of the Institute for the Study of Culture and Christianity, a research associate at the Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory of the University of Belgrade and an associate professor at the American University of Rome.